The attacks generally look like the following log snippet which is a simple dictionary attack (usually against root or admin).
Nov 15 07:41:58 static-171-163-154-171 sshd: Failed password for rootfrom 126.96.36.199 port 50818 ssh2
Nov 15 07:41:58 static-171-163-154-171 sshd: Invalid user password from 188.8.131.52
Nov 15 07:41:58 static-171-163-154-171 com.apple.SecurityServer: authinternal failed to authenticate user password.
Nov 15 07:41:58 static-171-163-154-171 com.apple.SecurityServer: Failed to authorize right system.login.tty by process /usr/sbin/sshd for authorization created by /usr/sbin/sshd.
You could try reporting the offending IP address, but the attacking computer will frequently turn out to be a compromised Windows machine owned by grandma and grandpa.
Your best bet, after ensuring that you're using a strong password, is to have SSH listen on a port other than 22, such as 8080. Since port 8080 is usually used as an alternative to port 80, attackers will try using the http protocol to exploit it, which will fail before the attack even has a chance to begin. At this point, script kiddies will move along since there are so many other servers, with vulnerabilities, to choose from.